Factors Affecting Pollination and Fruit Set in Olives


Although most olive varieties are self-fertile to some extent, research has shown that cross-pollination generally improves the fruit set of most varieties especially when the environment conditions are not optimal.  Generally having two or three different varieties growing in close proximity (30m) will facilitate adequate cross-pollination.

Arbequina, Pendulino, Coratina, Picual and Manzanillo are some of the main varieties used for cross-pollination. If a tree flowers well in the spring and does not set any fruit it may be an indication that cross-pollination is required.


olive flowers


Ensure that the trees are not water stressed during the period of flower induction and development which starts in late autumn early winter. In winter drought conditions, leaf development is favoured at the expense of flower development.

Water stress during late winter / spring is also a problem, resulting in malfunctioning flowers that do not develop correctly and prematurely drop without setting fruit.


Adequate levels of nutrients especially nitrogen, calcium and boron are required for optimal flowering and fruit set.  A leaf analysis taken in mid summer will give a good indication of the trees nutritional status and fertilizer requirements.

Generally olives require either manure or other fertilizer on an annual basis for good fruit set.

 It is common for growers to apply a foliar spray of boron and calcium in late winter just prior to bud burst to improve fruit set.

Excessive nitrogen fertilizer may also be a problem with some varieties, especially in warm winter climates because it tends to encourage excessive vegetative growth through the winter at the expense of floral development.


Hot dry winds during flowering are detrimental to pollination/ fertilization. Rain during flowering can also disrupt the pollination process.

Some winter chilling is required for flower initiation. Some research work evaluating the performance of olive varieties in a warm winter, summer rainfall climate has been undertaken in Australia. Preliminary data from this trial suggests that the varieties which look most promising for warm winter areas include the following:

Oil Varieties: Arbequina, Arecuzzo,  Coratina, Del Morocco, Koroneiki and Picual.

Table Varieties: Manzanillo, Azapa, Nab Tamri and South Australian Verdale.

Growers who intend to plant olives in a warm climate, outside of the traditional climatic zones should regard the initial planting as a trial and not a commercial venture until varietal performance is proven.   In most cases, the suggested varieties will bear some fruit in warm climates but reliable commercial yields may be difficult to obtain.

Pest and Disease

Pest and disease problems can severely affect floral initiation and flowering eg: Peacock Spot, Scale, and Olive Lace Bug.

The general tree stress caused by these problems is detrimental to the flowering process and often causes serious crop failure.


If fruit yield has been poor in previous seasons it is recommended to wait until the trees are flowering in spring before pruning. Then if pruning is required only prune the branches that are unproductive so that you leave as many flowering branches as possible.

Alternate bearing (trees bearing large crops one year and none the next) To manage alternate bearing you need to prune heavily in a heavy bearing year and remove clumps of fruit with relatively few leaves- fruit thinning is the only real way to limit alternate bearing.



Comments 10

    1. Post

      Hi Zheng,
      I suggest planting the olive varieties that are capable of fruiting in warm winter climates as the winter chilling in Fuzhou is limited. Arbequina. Koroneiki, Arecuzzo, Manzanillo, Coratina and Picual would be the main varieties to try.

  1. My husband and I are looking for an olive tree that we can hedge . Our location is Mallacoota , which is on the border of NSW & Victoria . Having visited Spain this year , we were most impressed with the versatility of the olive tree. What do you advise.


    1. Post

      Hi Jill,

      For a fast growing informal or a pleached hedge, we suggest the Italian varieties Frantoio or Coratina. The Spanish variety Manzanillo is not quite as fast growing but it makes a really attractive pleached hedge.

      Arbequina, Koroneiki or Arecuzzo are good if you prefer a hedge that is a bit more formal looking and a little slower growing.

      The semi-dwarf variety Bambalina is used to create a very formal olive hedge or topiary

    1. Post

      South Gippsland is a good olive growing region so most varieties would be suitable. I would plant Manzanillo, Kolossus, Hojiblanco or Californian Queen ( UC13A6) for table fruit or Frantoio, Coratina, Picual or Leccino for oil.

  2. Starting to landscape a new house built for our retirement at Salamander Bay NSW. Love the look of olive trees as well as the fruit. Our design thus far extends to a row of three trees along either side of the driveway. Favourite eating is Kalamata but not sure this is the most suitable variety from both size and soil/climate perspective. What would you recommend for six trees?

    1. Post

      Hi David,
      I suggest Manzanillo would be the best variety. It is easy to grow with a large fruit that can be pickled green or black. If you prefer a Kalamata type I would plant the Kolossus Kalamata which has a larger fruit than the regular Kalamata and more reliable in its fruiting.



  3. Thank you for your web site and growing tips for the olive tree. I live in Regency downs and I am keen to purchase a dozen or so Trees to grow at home.

    1. Post

      Hi David,
      If you are looking for fruit production in the Regency Downs area I suggest you plant Manzanillo with a couple of Arbequina for cross-pollination.


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